When you buy land, ideally, during the process, someone will review the property title carefully to determine ownership rights and make sure you are free and clear to buy the land. During this process, the review may uncover situations where someone else owns certain rights to the land, such as an easement or mineral rights. Sometimes, the review does not find any claims, but after you buy the property, someone may make a claim. 

A quiet title action usually occurs when there is concern over the ownership of certain rights to a piece of land. They are not trying to claim complete ownership of the property, just certain rights. The court will notify you of a quiet title action against any property you own interest in. A notice will also appear in the newspaper. 

You will also have to go to court to state your ownership rights. If you fail to show up, the court will determine you have no interest in the land and you could lose all ownership rights. 

When someone makes a claim of ownership on land through the court, that person making claim must show proof of ownership. The judge in the case will expect the person to show solid evidence of legal ownership interest. 

The court will decide the rightful owners and assign ownership interest to each party. Once the court makes its decision, it is the final ruling on ownership rights for all parties that came to the court hearing.